Connect with us

World

“He is lying” – the allegations made by the former Russian Foreign Minister against Putin

Published

on

“He is lying” – the allegations made by the former Russian Foreign Minister against Putin
  1. Homepage
  2. Policy

He presses

Russian President Vladimir Putin believes NATO has betrayed him. © Imago/Valery Sharifulin

According to Putin, NATO is illegally expanding eastward. The former Russian Foreign Minister disagrees. What promise in 1990?

MOSCOW – Russian President Vladimir Putin has not been fond of reminding us that NATO has broken its promise not to expand eastward, and not just since the beginning of the Ukrainian war. Now Andrei Kozyrev, a former Russian foreign minister, strongly opposes this. According to him, the promise of NATO expansion never existed. Kozyrev told the Ukrainian newspaper that it was “not true” that there were confirmations Kyiv Post.

Kozyrev told the newspaper that despite extensive research conducted by the Russian Foreign Ministry during his tenure as minister, his team was unable to find any evidence that Washington had made such a promise to Mikhail Gorbachev. He added: “When I was Minister of Foreign Affairs, we tried to find a trace of this in the archives and we failed. Gorbachev later denied receiving any kind of guarantee. The former foreign minister continued: “As far as I know, this is complete nonsense.” A statement that completely contradicts Putin.

“Complexities and stereotypes about the Russian threat” – Putin claims NATO is wrong

Shortly before the Russian attack on Ukraine on February 24, 2022, Putin clarified his position on NATO’s eastern expansion in a speech. He claimed that the United States had verbally confirmed in 1990 that German reunification would not happen To expand NATO to the east would lead. In addition, the United States said at the time that Central and Eastern European countries joining NATO would improve relations. But according to Putin, the opposite happened. According to the Russian president, the new member states brought their “complex and stereotypes about the Russian threat” to the transatlantic alliance – and insisted on expanding its defense potential.

READ  Sudanese Prime Minister Hamdok abruptly resigns

Who is Andrei Kozyrev?

Andrei Kozyrev had a diplomatic career, first in the Soviet Union and then in Russia, before finally being appointed Foreign Minister under Boris Yeltsin; A position he held between 1992 and 1996. Today he lives outside Russia.

For Putin, attacking Ukraine was a logical step. After all, Ukraine’s potential NATO membership was a „direct threat to Russia’s security” — so action had to be taken, the Russian president said on the eve of the invasion. This was not the first time such an allegation had been made. At the Munich Security Conference in 2007, Putin claimed that the West was breaking its promise not to expand NATO eastward. Putin’s predecessors in power also liked to complain about this broken promise – is this true?

NATO is allowed to expand eastward, and Russia has ratified a treaty to that effect

According to historian Marie-Elise Sarot, “the question of the history of NATO expansion must be separated from the question of Ukraine” in any case, as is the case with the Austrian case. shortening male. However, it is difficult to determine exactly what happened at that time. The truth lies somewhere on the spectrum between the feeling of betrayal by the Soviet Union and the US claim that the issue never came up at the time. What is certain is that the so-called two-plus-four contract exists in a legally binding form. This shows that NATO is allowed to expand “beyond the Cold War front line” to the east.

What is the so-called contract of two plus four?

The Two Plus Four Treaty, officially known as the „Treaty of the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany”, was signed in Moscow on 12 September 1990. It was a decisive step towards German reunification and was implemented by the two German states, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic ( East Germany), as well as the four occupying powers of World War II – the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and France – were negotiated and signed.

READ  Reports of a car explosion: the death of the daughter of Dugin, who is close to Putin

The important points were:

German sovereignty: The treaty ended Allied rights in Germany and established the full sovereignty of a unified Germany.
Border regulations: Germany confirmed its existing borders, particularly the Oder-Neisse border with Poland, and abandoned its territorial claims.
Withdrawal of forces: Soviet forces were to be withdrawn from the territory of the former German Democratic Republic by 1994, while Allied forces could remain in West Germany.
Military restrictions: Germany committed not to possess or produce NBC weapons (nuclear, biological and chemical weapons) and to limit the size of its armed forces to 370,000 soldiers.
NATO membership: Germany was allowed to remain a member of NATO, but it was agreed that no foreign NATO forces or nuclear weapons would be stationed on the territory of the former German Democratic Republic.
Final peace settlement: The treaty represented the final settlement with regard to Germany and replaced the formal peace treaty lost after World War II.

Moscow “not only signed this treaty, not only ratified it, but also received the subsidies associated with it”; The historian said. According to the sources, then US Secretary of State James Baker said to Gorbachev during the negotiations: “What about releasing half of the German Democratic Republic?” We would like to tell you that NATO is expanding “not one inch” into Eastern Europe.” However, this was a purely mental game. However, George H.W. Bush was unwilling to make such a commitment. That is why he told his Secretary of State that he “bowed „Too much outside the window.”

NATO committed itself voluntarily – was Gorbachev deliberately left in the wrong belief?

It is true that there is something called the NATO-Russia Constitutive Act of 1997. This stipulates that neither nuclear weapons nor large contingents of NATO forces will be stationed in the new NATO member states in Eastern Europe. The two sides also committed to respecting the sovereignty of all countries. However, according to Sarot, this basic law “is not a contract, that is, not legally binding.”

READ  International Relations: How Moscow is Looking for New Allies

As for journalist Andreas Zummach, who worked as a correspondent for the United Nations between 1988 and 2020, he has a different vision of the events. Taz He was. In a blog post on the news Additional service He refers to secret documents from the US National Security Archives. According to these documents, Gorbachev was deliberately „led” to „believe” that Baker’s assertions were truthful. At the same time, Western government circles were already thinking about expanding NATO to the east. However, according to Szomach, it was undoubtedly a “literal mistake” that Gorbachev “did not get the promises he made in February 1990 in writing.” (Tn)

Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Twój adres e-mail nie zostanie opublikowany. Wymagane pola są oznaczone *

World

The AfD wants to prevent expulsion from the Identity Party

Published

on

The AfD wants to prevent expulsion from the Identity Party


Exclusive

As of: June 24, 2024 at 10:17 AM

Disagreements over Europe’s leading candidate have already cost the AfD his membership in the EU Parliament’s identity faction. Now the Alternative for Germany party wants to separate completely from the European party.

The Federal Executive Council of the AfD unanimously decided this morning that the party’s congress at the end of next week will recommend leaving the European Identity and Democracy party. This I learned ARD Capital Studio From the council departments. The AfD is also said to want to prevent the impending expulsion.

The European Parliament’s Identity-linked faction had already broken away from the AfD delegation weeks ago. The reason for this was the inane statements made by the AfD candidate for the European elections, Maximilian Krah, about the National Socialist SS.

no rapprochement After the European elections

The AfD joined the Identity Party only a year ago. It was seen as “a suitable platform to strengthen communication with the AfD’s European sister parties,” according to the party’s board of directors’ decision today. The goal now is to move independently and shape the course in Europe in order to advance our own interests. “This requires partners who respect and share our interests.”

In the days following the election, the AfD had vainly hoped for a rapprochement with the ID faction in the European Parliament, thus excluding Krahe from its EU delegation. But the right-wing camp rejected the Alternative for Germany party’s appeal.

Since then, there has been significant dissatisfaction within the party that these former European partners were allowed to interfere too much in internal affairs. In Brussels, the AfD is currently trying to form a new faction with other right-wing parties.

READ  End of 'vicious cycle of violence': Pope speaks with Putin and Zelensky on their conscience

Many potential new partners

Last week, the news portal Euractiv reported that members of such a group could come primarily from signatories of the so-called Sophia Declaration. Bulgaria’s Vazrajdhani party initiated this manifesto in April 2024 to demand, among other things, peace negotiations on Russia’s war against Ukraine and an end to the EU’s alleged „rampant bureaucracy.”

Hence, potential new AfD partners include: Se Acabó La Fiesta (SALF, “The Party is Over”) from Spain, SOS Romania, Slovakia’s Hnutie Republika (Republican Movement), NIKH from Greece, and Mi Hazank Mozgalom (Our Homeland). From Hungary. and the Polish Konfederacja or its more extreme sister, the Ruch Narodowy. According to Spiegel, the new faction can be called the “Sovereigns.”

Continue Reading

World

Hajj: More than 1,300 killed due to the heat in Mecca

Published

on

Hajj: More than 1,300 killed due to the heat in Mecca

More than 1,300 pilgrims died due to extreme heat while performing Hajj in Saudi Arabia this year. This was announced by Saudi Health Minister Fahd bin Abdul Rahman Al-Jaladzil on state television. Temperatures in
Makkah It reached 49 degrees Celsius.

More than four-fifths of those killed were pilgrims without official permission, and therefore had no hotel rooms available to protect themselves from heat To protect. It is said that more than 660 of the dead came from Egypt.

Many of the infected Egyptians were initially treated at the medical center in the Al-Muaisem district in Mecca. An Egyptian diplomat confirmed the number of dead and said that most of them were present Saudi Arabia He was buried.

Investigations against tour operators

According to the Egyptian government, many of them have done so Tour guides Allowing pilgrims to travel to Saudi Arabia without a permit illegally. Employees of 16 tourism companies are being investigated. The Saudi authorities expelled tens of thousands of pilgrims without a permit. But many, especially Egyptians, are still able to access the holy sites in and around Mecca. Some of them were entirely on foot.

According to a previous count by the Associated Press news agency, among the dead were 165 pilgrims from Indonesia, 98 from India, and dozens more from Jordan, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria and Malaysia. Two pilgrims from the United States are also said to have died.

READ  Did Russia's German neo-Nazi raise the alarm in Putin?
Continue Reading

World

Crimea: Three people on the beach appear to have been killed by debris

Published

on

Crimea: Three people on the beach appear to have been killed by debris
outside Crimea

Three people on the beach were apparently killed by the wreckage

Russian terrorism with guided bombs – “a tremendous destructive force”

According to Ukrainian President Zelensky, Russia has attacked Ukraine with more than 2,400 guided bombs in recent weeks. Russia correspondent Christoph Wanner says they are converted aerial bombs.

Three people were killed and at least 124 others injured in a Ukrainian ATACMS missile attack on Crimea. The victims are said to have died due to debris falling on the beach. There are said to be 27 children among the wounded.

IOfficial information reported that at least three people, including two children, were killed in a missile attack on the coastal city of Sevastopol in the Crimean peninsula, which was annexed by Russia. They are said to have been killed by falling debris when Ukrainian missiles were intercepted over the city of Sevastopol in Crimea, said the city’s Moscow-appointed governor, Mikhail Razvochayev.

On Sunday, the Russian Ministry of Health announced that the number of infected people had risen to 124, according to the Interfax news agency. Russian child rights representative Maria Loa-Belova wrote on the Telegram application: “According to preliminary information, there are 27 children among the injured, 5 of whom are in critical condition – doctors are fighting for their lives.”

Here you will find content from third parties

In order to view embedded content, it is necessary to obtain your revocable consent to the transfer and processing of personal data, as providers of embedded content require this consent as third-party service providers. [In diesem Zusammenhang können auch Nutzungsprofile (u.a. auf Basis von Cookie-IDs) gebildet und angereichert werden, auch außerhalb des EWR]. By setting the switch to „On”, you agree to this (revocable at any time). This also includes your consent to the transfer of certain personal data to third countries, including the USA, in accordance with Article 49(1)(a) of the GDPR. You can find more information about this. You can revoke your consent at any time using the key and privacy at the bottom of the page.

According to the Ministry of Defense in Moscow, Ukraine launched five ATACMS missiles. Four of them were intercepted. He added, „Another missile deviated from its course as a result of air defense operations and exploded over the city area.”

Many of the victims were said to be sunbathing on a beach in the city of Ushkuyivka in northern Sevastopol when the missile debris fell. There are also photos of a burned private house in the area. Sevastopol Governor Mikhail Razvoschayev wrote that all medical facilities had been mobilized to care for the wounded.

Read also

The Russian Investigative Committee opened criminal proceedings on charges of terrorism after the missile fell. Forensic investigators were on the scene, authorities said.

Sevastopol is the main port of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. Belbek Military Airport is also located in the city area. Russia uses both the fleet and the airport extensively in its war against Ukraine. Therefore, Ukraine regularly attacks both objects.

Meanwhile, one person was killed and ten others were injured, according to the governor of the region of the same name, in Russian attacks on the city of Kharkiv in eastern Ukraine. There have been attacks on civilian infrastructure, Ole Sinehubo wrote on the short messaging service Telegram. It appears that slide bombs were used. Among the victims were teenagers.

READ  Reports of a car explosion: the death of the daughter of Dugin, who is close to Putin
Continue Reading

Trending