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Meeting in Berlin: What should be possible in Antarctica

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Status: 05/25/2022 03:43 AM

In Antarctica, people do research, fish and tourists visit the area frequently. In Berlin, representatives from more than 50 countries are advising who is actually allowed to do what is in the world’s largest nature reserve.

What is the topic of the meeting?

The main focus of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Conferences in Berlin is environmental and climate protection. For example, protecting emperor penguins is a long-term goal. Protection of the newly discovered megafish breeding area in the Antarctic seas may also become a problem. The biodiversity of the polar seas of the continent is huge and must be preserved, and fishing is allowed only on a very limited scale here.

The contracting states of the Antarctic Treaty are notified by their Special Commission for the Protection of the Environment. Research is also taking place in Berlin, where regular discussions should take place about who wants to research, where and how this might affect other countries and other local researchers. Tourism will also be an important topic this year. It is rapidly increasing, but is only allowed as long as the Antarctic flora and fauna are not disturbed. The meeting continues until June 2.

What is the Antarctic Treaty?

Even if the Antarctic Treaty is not well known, it is considered one of the most successful intergovernmental agreements and regulates how a continent without a government, without a parliament, is used equitably by all parties involved.

Its great political value can be understood by going back in time to the late 1950s. At that time the world was at the height of the Cold War. Several countries have declared their territorial claims to Antarctica. Whether because it was the closest riparian country, Chile has argued, or because it was the first to officially enter any particular region of Antarctica. So argues Great Britain. So there was a significant risk that Antarctica could disintegrate into a mosaic of partially overlapping territorial claims. In the back of my mind was the fear of atomic bomb experiments.

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This is how science became active. At her proposal, an International Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research was formed, in which the Antarctic Treaty was drawn up. It banned new territorial claims and froze those already made. It also prohibits military exercises or prospecting for mineral wealth.

Alternatively, Antarctica may only be used for peaceful purposes such as research and tourism, provided that its ecological balance is always maintained. In 1961, the Antarctic Treaty entered into force as the first treaty after World War II that could organize nations into peaceful coexistence. Today there is an extensive network of international agreements relating to this fundamental treaty.

Who signed the Antarctic Treaty?

On December 1, 1959, twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, Great Britain, New Zealand and Norway, all of which made territorial claims in Antarctica, as well as South Africa, the United States of America and the first. Soviet Union.

It has now been signed by more than 50 countries, but if Tanya von Oslar-Gleichen, chair of the Berlin Consultative Conference, succeeds, there could be more. The more community that comes together to protect Antarctica, the better. Not all countries have voting rights. In order to get it, extensive engagement around the South Pole and research on Earth is necessary. Germany acceded to the Antarctic Treaty in 1979, as it operates research stations in Antarctica, it also has voting rights.

What happens if someone violates the Antarctic Treaty?

In addition to its success, the Antarctic Treaty is a fragile utopia. Antarctica is huge and sparsely populated, so no one will even notice if hunting was carried out on a large scale in restricted areas. The entire contract is built on trust and transparent communication.

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Political scientist Patrick Flamm is associated with the Hamburg Giga Institute and an expert on the Antarctic Treaty. In his view, each country can in the end do whatever it wants, you just have to lose your reputation. There are no hard penalties, and the Antarctic Treaty is held together by what is described as the „Antarctic spirit of cooperation”. However, checks do happen. Dr. Birgit Stekelberg runs the German research station Neumeyer 3 and reports on regular, unannounced inspections of the research stations between them.

What is being searched for in Antarctica?

There are about 80 research stations in Antarctica. Several thousand researchers work here in the summer, and only 100 in the Antarctic winter, and research areas include glaciology (glaciology); Meteorology, climate research, geophysics, biology or oceanography. An Ice Plant Seed Bank has also been set up, storing genetic material from cultivated and wild plants from around the world. But there is also future research that could make space travel easier.

At the German research station Neumayer III there is the Eden-ISS project, which is a greenhouse in which kilograms of lettuce, cucumbers, tomatoes and herbs are grown. As a test, because an Antarctic greenhouse is supposed to be on Mars at some point.

Daniel Schubert is one of the Eden-ISS project managers at the German Aerospace Center and explains that this greenhouse could be brought to Mars and started automatically. When the first astronauts came to Mars, they could start harvesting right away. Average temperatures on Mars and Antarctica are similar, which is why this kind of future research works only in an almost pristine icy desert.

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What kind of tourism is there in Antarctica?

There are no hotels in Antarctica, there is no airport, however, before Corona, about 75,000 tourists came to Antarctica every year. The president of the Berlin Antarctic Conference, Tanya von Oslar-Gleichen, talks about the increase in adventure tourism, and the desire to experience a frozen continent.

There is a growing demand for mountain and snowboarding, as well as motorized trekking over ice, paragliding and sightseeing trips. The challenge is to keep tourism at an acceptable level for Antarctica. If the tourists make a lot of noise, this disturbs the delicate world of animals such as the emperor penguin. If they pull seed pods not found in Antarctica unnoticed, the invasive species can damage native plants.

What role does Antarctica play in climate change?

crucial, even if it is rarely conscious. This vast frigid zone stabilizes the global climate, as the extreme cold of Antarctica controls the circulation of air and oceans. Without Antarctica, the global climate would be very different. Antarctica has not been as severely affected by climate change as the Arctic in the north, but temperatures are rising here too.

The sea ice in Antarctica is already slowly melting, and it would be really dangerous for the whole world if the land ice melted. The Antarctic ice sheet is about 5,000 meters thick at its thickest point. If land ice melts, it will cause sea levels to rise on European coasts as well. According to the Federal Foreign Office, people all over the world may lose their livelihoods, and due to climate change, this risk is very real.

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Attack on Odessa – „Targeted Russian Terror”

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creature: updated:

to: Tobias ÖtzAnd the Marvin Ziegel

The situation in the Ukraine war continues to deteriorate – militarily, diplomatically and humanitarianly: news ticker on Saturday 2 July.

Update from Saturday, July 2, 6 a.m.: Ukraine strongly condemned the Russian missile attack on an apartment building in the Odessa region of southern Ukraine, which killed at least 21 people and wounded 39 (p. update from Friday, 6:42 p.m.). President Volodymyr Zelensky spoke of „deliberate and directed Russian terrorism.” He added in a video message that no weapons or military equipment were hidden in the house – „as Russian propaganda and officials always tell about such attacks.”

At the same time, Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba accused Russia of waging war against civilians in connection with the missile attack. I urge our partners to provide Ukraine with modern missile defense systems as soon as possible. „Help us save lives and put an end to this war,” Kuleba said on Twitter.

Rescue workers carry the wounded from an apartment building in Odessa that was destroyed in a Russian missile attack. © OLEKSANDR GIMANOV / AFP

Ukraine war: Russia appears to be attacking Snake Island with phosphorous bombs

+++ 8.44 pm: Ukraine accused the Russian army of using phosphorous bombs to attack Snake Island in the Black Sea. Ukrainian army chief Valery Zalochny wrote on Telegram that Russian forces „twice carried out air strikes with phosphorous bombs” on Friday evening. It was only on Thursday that the Russian army announced its withdrawal from the Ukrainian island, which it had occupied for four months.

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Ukraine: Death toll rises after missile attack

+++ 6.42 pm: After the Russian missile attacks on the Odessa region in southern Ukraine, the death toll rose to 21, according to Ukrainian information. Odessa regional administration spokesman Serhiy Prachuk told Ukrainian television on Friday that at least one child, a 12-year-old boy, was among the dead. According to Ukrainian rescue workers, 39 people, including six children, were injured in the attacks in the village of Serhivka, about 80 kilometers south of the coastal city of Odessa.

According to Prachuk, the missiles were launched from fighter planes flying over the Black Sea. The projectiles hit an apartment building and a recreation center. According to rescue workers, 16 people were killed in the apartment building. Five people were killed in the recreation center, including a child. Moscow denied that the Russian army targeted civilian attacks in Ukraine. Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov stressed that the Russian armed forces „did not act against civilian targets” during their operations.

The war in Ukraine: the start of the study normally from September

+++ 5.30 pm: With the start of the new school year in September, children and youth in Kyiv should be able to return to their schools. The Ministry of Education in the Ukrainian capital announced on Friday that after the current summer holidays, there will be face-to-face lessons again. Since the Russian invasion of Ukraine on February 24, there have been only online lessons – that is, if any. Head of Education Department Olena Vidangan explained that the most important thing when starting face-to-face lessons on September 1st is “the safety of learners and teachers”. School grounds will be checked for possible explosive devices until then. In addition, at the beginning of the school year, there is a special training for all students and teachers on what to do in the event of a bomb explosion.

+++ 4.45 pm: Vladimir Kara Mersa, a critic of Putin and a prisoner in Russia, wrote a letter to the public. The Washington Post Posted this on Friday. In it, Kara Morsi denounced the fact that Vladimir Putin had abolished the last liberties of the country in a „very effective blitzkrieg.” He mentions 200 blocked media and 3000 blocked websites as examples. The reality of the war against Ukraine is „strictly hidden from the public.” Russia has evolved from an authoritarian state to a totalitarian state, according to criticism from the Kremlin and Putin in his letter. Kara-Marsa has been detained since early April. He is accused of „resisting state authority”.

Ukraine war news: Death toll rises after missile attack

+++ 3.30 pm: The death toll from Russian missile attacks near Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi in southern Ukraine near the city of Odessa has risen to at least 20, according to Ukrainian sources. The Civil Protection announced this on Friday. At first, there was talk of ten dead. At least 38 people continued to be treated in hospitals. According to the military department, a total of three Russian missiles fell. An apartment building and a recreation center were hit. X-22 missiles were launched by Russian Tu-22 bombers over the Black Sea. It is difficult to verify information from combat zones by an independent party. Since the Russian invasion began in late February, the United Nations has recorded more than 4,700 civilian deaths. However, the United Nations assumes that the number of civilian casualties will be much higher.

News about the Ukraine war: the Baltic states „NATO’s Achilles heel”

+++ 1.30 pm: Klaus Kleiber, a former ZDF mediator and US reporter, commented on the possible further course of the Ukraine war. In Maybrit Illner, Kleber went on what US intelligence recently confirmed: Putin’s goal remains the occupation of all of Ukraine. Kleber named Moldova and Georgia as possible next targets. According to Kleiber, the Baltic states are the „Achilles heel of NATO”. On the other hand, an attack on Poland is not a possible scenario.

+++ 12.45 pm: Michael Podoljak, an adviser to Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky, described the Russian missile attacks on apartment complexes as „bloody terrorist tactics.” He was referring to the night bombing of a small town in the Odessa region, which killed at least 19 people. Dozens were injured. Attacks are not about errors, but calculations. Contrary to Podoljak’s assessment, a Ukrainian brigadier general assumes that The obsolete Soviet missiles are the cause of civilian casualties.

+++ 12.00 pm: It appears that Russian forces have captured the Lysychansk oil refinery. This was reported by the Russian news agency RIA, on Friday afternoon, citing the Kremlin Ministry of Defense. The information cannot be independently verified.

Ukraine war news: New mass grave discovered in Mariupol

+++ 11.00 am: A new mass grave has apparently been discovered in the coastal city of Mariupol. News Portal Reports back Quoting Petro Andryoshenko, adviser to the mayor. There are more than 100 bodies in the tomb. This cannot be verified independently.

News of the Ukraine war: Russian missile attacks hit residential areas near Odessa

+++ 08.00 am: At least 17 people were killed in rocket attacks on the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Odessa region. A spokesman for the Odessa Regional Military Administration, Serhiy Prachuk, said on Telegram that three shells landed on a residential property. Among other things, an entertainment center was targeted. The situation on the ground is chaotic and the information cannot be independently verified. a videowhich from the news portal back Shows the extent of the damage. The residential area is like a field of rubble.

First report from Friday, July 1, 2022 at 6:15 am: At least 14 people were killed in a Russian missile attack on an apartment building in the Odessa region of southern Ukraine, according to Ukrainian sources. Ukrainian rescue services reported 14 dead and 30 wounded on Friday. Among the wounded were three children. Rescue work will continue, but it will be complicated by a fire.

A spokesman for the Odessa Regional Administration, Serhiy Prachuk, said earlier that the missile hit a nine-storey apartment building in the Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi district, about 80 kilometers south of the coastal city of Odessa. The missile was launched from an aircraft flying over the Black Sea.

According to Ukrainian sources, the apartment building was partially destroyed in the attack. Rescue workers initially reported six dead and seven wounded. The death toll later rose to ten and then to 14. (marv/tu with AFP/dpa)

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Interview with the Counsellor: Ineffective Sanctions? Schulz fears 'a very long war’

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KSoon after Russia’s attack on Ukraine, Western politicians were confident: Ukraine would have to hold out until sanctions against Russia came into effect. Then Vladimir Putin will get into trouble and may have to end his war of aggression. You rarely hear this kind of sound anymore. Despite the numerous sanctions packages against Russia, the Kremlin is showing no signs of slowing or ending its brutal war in Ukraine.

Chancellor Olaf Schultz also appears to believe that sanctions will not dissuade Vladimir Putin from continuing the war for long. When asked when Putin will run out of weapons and money, Schulz said in an interview that no one really knows him.

„Putin is the leader of a very large country with a lot of people and great resources,” Schultz said Friday night. Broadcasting a conversation with the American television station CBS. „I think the decision for this war was made a year or so ago, because Putin was preparing for it,” Schultz said in the English-language interview.

Nearly ten days before the start of the war: the last personal meeting between Vladimir Putin (left) and Olaf Schultz in the Kremlin

Source: pa / dpa / Russian President Press Office / Sputnik / Mikhail Klimentyev

“And so he will be able to continue the war for a really long time.” At the same time, Schultz was convinced that Putin was feeling the consequences of the sanctions, even if he „didn’t really want to admit it.” Schulz said, looking at his phone calls with the Russian president.

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„You can understand that he is really hurt and that he understands the serious consequences of the sanctions on his economy.” Russia is not very advanced and needs technology from the rest of the world to bring prosperity to the people.

Confronting the president with the statement that Germany spends up to two billion dollars (about two billion euros) per month on Russian energy, Schulz did not directly disagree, but emphasized that the amount was constantly declining. Schulz explained that Putin could hardly do anything with that income. „He can’t buy anything with the money he gets from us,” Schultz said.

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The reason is that the West has imposed sanctions and the technology can no longer be sold to Russia. About four weeks ago, Federal Economy Minister Robert Habeck (the Greens) made a similar statement in the Bundestag. “Putin can buy less and less with the money he earns,” the vice chancellor said at the time.

He could still supply his army, but he still suffered severely from penalties. At the same time, Habeck admitted that the income that Putin received from Germany for his energy was „harming”. “One can only be ashamed that we did not succeed in reducing dependency,” Habek said, referring to the lack of diversification prior to Russia’s attack on Ukraine. Since the beginning of the War of Aggression, Germany has reduced its dependence on Russian energy, significantly in some cases.

DWO_AP_Ostukraine_Gebiete_3006

The current situation in Ukraine

Source: Infographic World

Meanwhile, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky said Russia’s withdrawal from Snake Island in the western Black Sea puts Ukraine in a better position. „Snake Island is a strategic point and this dramatically changes the situation in the Black Sea,” Zelensky said in his daily video address on Friday evening. This significantly limits the freedom of action of the Russian army, even if this does not guarantee security.

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Russia occupied Snake Island shortly after attacking Ukraine on February 24. The fact that few Ukrainian soldiers in front of it rudely recommended the sunken Russian cruiser „Moskva” to go to hell made the small island famous and boosted the morale of Ukrainians. Reclaiming the island is also a symbolic success for them. In this way, Zelensky said, Russian forces would be driven out of all of Ukraine.

According to the Ukrainian military, Snake Island allows control of parts of the Ukrainian coast and shipping lanes. With the Russians withdrawing from the island, there is no need to fear the landing of Russian units in the area around the port city of Odessa. On Thursday, the Russian Defense Ministry said it would leave the island as a sign of goodwill, but the Ukrainian military responded that a series of artillery and air strikes had driven away the occupiers. Ukraine also sees this as confirmation that it can succeed militarily against Russian forces with more modern weapons.

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Ukrainian sources reported that a Russian missile attack on the Odessa region killed ten people in an apartment building. Serhiy Prachuk, head of the local military administration, said the missile destroyed part of the nine-storey building. A fire broke out after the attack. The missile was launched from a Russian warplane over the Black Sea. The information cannot be independently verified.

At least 18 people were killed in a rocket attack on a shopping mall in the central Ukrainian city of Kremenchug on Monday. Russian President Vladimir Putin has denied any responsibility for his country’s armed forces.

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Ukraine’s ambassador defends controversial national hero

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in one an interview The Ukrainian ambassador to Germany, Andrei Melnik (46), defended Ukrainian nationalist and militia leader Stepan Bandera (1909-1959) with Internet activist Tilo Young (36).

In Germany, Israel, and many other countries, Bandera’s role in World War II is viewed with great criticism, mainly due to the cooperation of his forces with the German Nazis and their involvement in the mass murder of Jews. In western Ukraine, on the other hand, Bandera is revered as a national hero. His resistance against the Soviet occupiers and his commitment to Ukraine’s independence were glorified. His admirers in Ukraine still deny Bandera’s responsibility for the massacres of Jews.

The „Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists”, the leadership of which belongs to Bandera, represents radical anti-Semitic views, that is, Jews hated like the Nazis themselves. Units of the organization participated in many murders in cooperation with Nazi German forces. The victims were Jewish civilians.

Shortly after the invasion of the German Wehrmacht, Bandera attempted to install an independent Ukrainian government. The German occupiers then deported him to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. In 1944 Bandera was released from prison. This was unusual! He should support Germany in the war against the Soviet Union. After the war Bandera lived in Germany, in 1959 he was killed in Munich by a KGB agent.

In an interview with Jung, Melnyk, who previously spoke favorably about Bandera, rejected all allegations. „He did not order the extermination of the Jews,” said the Ukrainian ambassador. Several historians have researched this matter. „There is no evidence, so I won’t walk away from it.”

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„There is no evidence that Bandera’s forces killed hundreds of thousands of Jews,” Melnik said. Bandera was not a „mass killer” of Jews and Poles. „I’m not going to tell you today that I distance myself from that and that’s it.”

But historians and Jewish organizations outside Ukraine see things differently! In 2010, the then President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko (68) was posthumously awarded the “Hero of Ukraine” award. At the time, the international community as well as Jewish organizations expressed clear criticism. The Simon Wiesenthal Center (SWC), which fights Jew-hatred worldwide, expressed „deep disgust” and condemned the award, noting that Bandera supporters „killed thousands of Jews and others in World War II”.

The fact also includes: to justify the aggressive and criminal war against Ukraine, Russian politicians and their fans currently describe Ukraine as a country ruled by „Nazis”. The Jewish President of Ukraine, Volodymyr Zelensky (44), is also insulted by the Russians as a Nazi.

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