DrScotland and Glasgow these days revolve around the 2021 World Climate Conference. The United Nations has previously made clear that much greater efforts will be necessary to achieve the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement target, and global warming to 1.5 degrees compared to pre-industrial limit, has not yet been achieved. Coalition negotiations in Germany also focus on climate policy, especially since the Federal Republic wants to achieve climate neutrality by 2045.
Prominent German economists are calling for the price of carbon dioxide to be the focus of climate policy, with carbon dioxide being the most important climate killer. Price 25 euros per Tons of CO2 However, experts find it very difficult to develop the required guidance function. Which equates to less than a dime per liter of fuel or heating oil. Even a gradual increase to €55 by 2025 will not be enough to achieve Germany’s ambitious climate goals.
Other countries are already imposing Significant increase in carbon dioxide prices. Sweden is at the top at $137 a ton. Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Finland, Norway and France are also ahead of Germany in this regard, such as the study “Stopping Climate Change. Carbon Dioxide Prices and Digital Innovation as Opportunity” from the Bertelsmann Foundation offers, available exclusively to WELT.
In the early 1990s, Finland and Poland were the first two countries to begin charging moderate prices for select CO2-intensive goods. More and more European countries slowly followed, until 2005 all EU member states were covered by the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). With this system covering some industrial goods, energy sources and air traffic within Europe, companies are required to obtain pollution certificates, which are priced on demand. Economists consider emissions trading to be an effective way to achieve already established climate goals, as the targeted reduction in CO2 emissions is achieved automatically through quantitative control.
According to the World Bank, there are now 64 initiatives of this type implemented or planned at the subnational, national or regional level. However, it covers only 21.5 percent of all global carbon dioxide emissions. The USA and China, of all places, where CO2 emissions are particularly high, are also setting CO2 pricing and want to achieve their climate goals with other tools. In the new climate package, the US government relies mainly on massive subsidies, while the People’s Republic relies on strict state oversight.
But also in Germany, a clear market-based climate policy towards blanket pricing of CO2 has not yet been discerned. The German Energy Agency (Dina) criticizes that the century’s mission of energy transformation and climate protection cannot be mastered with „the little and the little one of the past few years”. “Co2 price, climate-neutral tire design, and market design are key to achieving climate-neutrality,” says their recent groundbreaking study. It is critical that all sectors are included in pricing and that trade be conducted as European as possible or, ideally, even internationally, in order to avoid competitive disadvantages and migration of emissions-intensive firms to less stringent regions.
The three leading economists, Clemens Fuest, Gabriel Felbermayr, and Jens Sudcom, point out in their analysis of a „Climate Policy Master Plan” published by the Ifo Institute that such an internationally coordinated market-based training course not only affects the climate, but also the business. benefit greatly. Europe can play a leading role in technologies for carbon dioxide reduction and adaptation to global warming, the researchers emphasized: “The price of carbon dioxide is the central tool of this policy.” It creates the best incentives for behavioral modifications in private homes as well as for climate-friendly business operations. All income from the price of carbon dioxide must be returned in full to the population.
but also with The traffic light consortium that is now being searched for in Germany The SPD, the Greens, and the FDP are not expected to be with the big leap in climate policy that experts have called for. It is true that the Liberals rely on the carbon dioxide price system and the European emissions trading system across all sectors, from electricity generation to transportation, agriculture and buildings to industry. However, the exploratory paper on the traffic light is likely to reflect a continuation of the road with more and more new measures such as a commitment to solar cells on roofs, a ban on burners, and adherence to stringent sector-specific targets for CO2 savings. .
The Climate Protection Act, passed in 2019 and tightened last summer, sets a decreasing annual emissions limit for the individual sectors of energy, industry, traffic, buildings, agriculture and waste management. If this is disrupted, the responsible ministry must take additional measures. While economists have criticized this sectoral approach as ineffective, environmental groups see it as a guarantee that climate protection measures will be implemented virtually in every region. The Greens emphasized that they absolutely want to stick with that approach.
„My fear is that politicians will not do blanket pricing for CO2 because the real costs of climate protection will become very transparent,” he says. Ifo Chief Fuest opposite world. People prefer to rely on regulatory law, i.e. on government prohibitions and requirements. In fact this is inefficient and therefore more costly but it is less transparent to citizens.”
The chief economist is of the opinion that many politicians are highly skeptical of the market economy approach. With burner ban or Solar roof commitment One could show something more real. „This is a prescriptive approach that ultimately makes climate protection more expensive,” says Fuest. Now would be the time to determine the path in the direction of a cross-sectoral system. Especially since the European Union is open to this path, the world assures: „But Germany does not have a real plan when it comes to climate policy.”
The massive trend of digitization, such as Bertelsmann study offers. “Digitalization can reduce emissions not only through technological innovations, but also through regulatory innovations.” These include, for example, concepts of resource-saving consumption such as car sharing or online commerce in second-hand products, which can still be greatly expanded.
According to the report, optimal traffic control and logistics as well as increased use of new technologies in the energy sector and in waste disposal can contribute significantly to reducing greenhouse gases through accelerated digitization. Sustainability and digital advancement must be considered more closely in the future.
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